By Michael L. Luyben, William L. Luyben
This article incorporates a very useful engineering orientation with many real-world commercial regulate examples and difficulties. insurance comprises plantwide keep watch over and the interactions among steady-state layout and dynamic controllability. MATLAB is used as a computer-aided research instrument. also, many examples and an in depth choice of difficulties are integrated.
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Extra resources for Essentials of Process Control
8 ... 160 . I2 .. _,. ;. ;. :_ . :. i 180 200 .............. : ...... :i 10 i 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Time (min) I I I 140 160 180 200 I I I I I I I I . ;. ;. :. . ;. ;. ;. ;. . ;. _ ; ; ; ; ; 1 f . ii I::::::::! I... j . . . . f . . . . i . . . : . . . . : . . . . :. . . . : . . . 7 Level control of two tanks in series using P controllers. abwrrx I: Introduction 1 I at time equal zero. 3 gives the “m-file” used. If you do not already have some exposure to programming in MATLAB, you can pick up the essentials pretty quickly.
Again, this makes good physical sense. If there is no reaction, the time constant is just equal to the residence time T = V/F. Before we leave this example, let us put Eq. 5 1) This is the form in which we want to look at many systems of this type. Dividing by the term (k + I /7) does the trick. 52) time constant with units of time 1 K,, = ~ = process steady-state gain with units of concentration kr+ I in product stream divided by concentration in feed stream Then the solution [Eq. 53) In this example we have used total variables.
As more tanks are added to the system, the control becomes more difficult. Controlling TI with Ql (we call this a first-order system) is easy: the system is never oscillatory. Controlling T2 with Ql (a second-order system) gives some OScillatory behavior, but controller gains have to be quite large before the oscillation 20 CIIAI~~K I, Introcfuclion bccomcs a problem. However, controlling Tj with Qt (a third-order system) is more difficult since high controller gains can lead to instability. Thus, as the order of the system is increased, the dynamic performance becomes worse.
Essentials of Process Control by Michael L. Luyben, William L. Luyben