Download e-book for iPad: Energy and Water Cycles in the Climate System by José Pinto Peixoto (auth.), Ehrhard Raschke, Daniela Jacob

By José Pinto Peixoto (auth.), Ehrhard Raschke, Daniela Jacob (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3642769578

ISBN-13: 9783642769573

ISBN-10: 3642769594

ISBN-13: 9783642769597

Water is the best agent within the weather process to modulate strength move by way of radiative approaches, via its exchanges of latent warmth and inside cascades of chemical methods. it's the resource of all lifestyles on the earth, and as soon as convective clouds are shaped, it allows huge vertical transports of momentum, warmth and diverse atmospheric materials as much as degrees above the tropical tropopause. Water triggers very complicated techniques on the earth's continental surfaces and in the oceans. finally, water in its gaseous part is crucial greenhouse-gas! Numerical modelling and measurements of the country of the current weather procedure wishes a truly thorough figuring out of some of these approaches and their numerous interactions and forcings. it is a prerequisite for extra great forecasts of destiny states in all scales of time, from days to centuries. accordingly, the administration of the realm weather examine Programme demonstrated in 1988 the recent programme GEWEX (Global strength and Water Cycle Experiment). GEWEX is particularly outlined to figure out the power and water transports within the quickly parts of the weather approach with the almost immediately to be had modelling and dimension potential and to supply new features for the longer term. study in GEWEX needs to additional strengthen ways to be certain the effect of climatic anomalies on to be had water resources.

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LW",-2 G/T=_513mWm- 2 X- 1 Gc ..... w .. 3mWm- 2 K- 1 top bottom i i L: GilT; + L: GilT; = -884 + 278 = -606mWm- 2 K- 1 ENTROPY GENERATION PROCESSES ABSORPTION SOLAR RADIATION ABSORPTION LATENT HEAT RELEASE TERRESTRIAL SENSIBLE HEATING FRICTIONAL HEATING RADIATION T=258K T=252K pQ=GIW ... 6Wm- 2 cr=2SI ... Wm- 2 K- 1 ... =24ftlWm- 2 X - 1 pQ=T9Wm- 2 T=2,OK T=:lI80K pQ= .. O.... 20: Entropy budget of the global atmosphere estimated for annual mean conditions. Shown are the equivalent temperature T" in f{, the energy flux G in W m -2 and the entropy flux G IT" in units of m W m-2 f{-l for each energy component at the top of the atmosphere and at the earth's surface.

The mean meridional circulations in the tropics (Hadley cells) generated zonal angular momentum in their upper branches and thereby mean zonal kinetic energy. However, the indirect circulations in midlatitudes of each hemisphere (Ferrel cells) consume mean zonal kinetic energy at a rate slightly exceedings the production in the Hadley cells. Therefore, for the atmosphere as a whole part of the mean zonal kinetic energy is converted back into mean zonal available potential energy. Considering presently the numerical estimates from Oort and Peixoto (1983) shown in Fig.

29) In hydrostatic equilibrium we have gw where + ac· V p = a v. 30) v is the horizontal, two-dimensional wind vector. Inspection of the previous energy equations shows that they are not independent of each other since they are linked by common terms. In fact, Eq. 21 shows that the rate of change of potential energy comes from the work done against the force of gravity, gw. This same term appears with the opposite sign in Eq. 28 which suggests that there is a conversion of potential into kinetic energy, or vice versa.

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Energy and Water Cycles in the Climate System by José Pinto Peixoto (auth.), Ehrhard Raschke, Daniela Jacob (eds.)

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