By Ramesh Umrani, C. K. Jain
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Extra resources for Agroforestry: systems and practices
Often, harvesting is unsustainable because of lack of knowledge about silviculture of species and destructive exploitation strategies driven by market forces. Domestication of such species aimed at commercialization and production of valued products can reduce the pressure on natural ecosystems. Domestication of forest fruit trees and other species grown in agroforestry systems offers significant opportunity for livelihood improvement through nutritional and economic security of Agroforestry: Systems and Practices 30 the poor in the tropics.
This has resulted in gradual decrease in migration. Agroforestry: Systems and Practices 38 Table 3. 4605 Parameters value A. Social parameters B. Economic parameters C. Ecological parameters Nature of occupation Farmers were involved in hunting and gathering of minor forest produce in the nearby forests/estates for their livelihood before the introduction of agroforestry. Now they have stopped these occupations and are concentrating only in farming. Economic Parameter The economic impact of agroforestry practices on farmers are presented in Table 3.
N, P, and K are primary macronutrients with crop requirements generally in the range of 50-150 lb. per acre. Ca, Mg, and S are secondary macronutrients, required in amounts ot 1050 lb. per acre. Micronutrient requirements are generally less than 1 lb. per acre. Mineral nutrients are obtained by plants through root uptake from the soil solution. Sources of these soluble nutrients in the soil include: 1) weathering of soil minerals, 2) decomposition of plant residues, animal remains, and soil microorganisms, 3) application of fertilizers and liming materials, 4) application of manures, composts, biosolids (sewage sludge) and other organic amendments, 5) N-fixation by legumes, 6) ground rock powders or dusts including greensand, basalt, and rock phosphate, 44 Agroforestry: Systems and Practices 7) atmospheric deposition, such as Nand 5 from acid rain or N-fixation by lightning discharges, and 8) deposition of nutrient-rich sediment from erosion and flooding.
Agroforestry: systems and practices by Ramesh Umrani, C. K. Jain