By Ken Howard; Dubravka Pokrajac
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Extra resources for Advanced simulation and modelling for urban groundwater management : UGROW
2006). 2, these issues relate to the impacts of urbanization on either the quality or quantity of the groundwater resource. 5, such issues pose important challenges in the development of simulation models suited to the urban groundwater environment. Developments in our knowledge and understanding of urban groundwater during the past twenty-five years have been matched by advances in our ability to simulate aquifer behaviour and contaminated groundwater using numerical modelling techniques. 3, most advances in the field of numerical modelling have been generic in the sense that the vast majority relate to the simulation of basic flow and transport processes, typically within the zone of saturation.
Recharge from urban rivers has been induced in many urban aquifers by overabstraction and in some cases by purpose-designed ‘bank infiltration’ schemes (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002). Influx is partly controlled by river bed deposits. The hydraulic properties of these may be modified by suspended solids contained in wastewater that has been discharged into the river upstream – anthropogenic colmation. g. Birmingham, a major city in central UK, has approximately 180 km of canals). g. , 2004). In some cases, complex injection well schemes have been implemented to control the intrusion.
Piped water leakage: Although the presence of paved areas is expected to reduce net recharge, an extra source of aquifer replenishment in many urban aquifers is leakage from piped water systems (mains leakage). In some aquifers, for example, Lima, Peru, (Lerner, 1986) this may be the main source of recharge. Amounts of leakage vary considerably. Puri (pers. comm. 2004) estimates leakage rates to be as high as 90% in some rural towns in developing countries: in the UK, rates in recent years have been up to 30%, although these are now falling, while Van de Ven and Rijsberman (1999) estimate a leakage rate of approximately 5% for cities in Holland.
Advanced simulation and modelling for urban groundwater management : UGROW by Ken Howard; Dubravka Pokrajac