A Selection of Problems in the Theory of Numbers. Popular - download pdf or read online

By Waclaw Sierpinski, I. N. Sneddon, M. Stark

ISBN-10: 0080107346

ISBN-13: 9780080107349

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Generality is a key price in clinical discourses and practices. all through historical past, it has acquired numerous meanings and of makes use of. This choice of unique essays goals to inquire into this variety. via case reviews taken from the heritage of arithmetic, physics and the lifestyles sciences, the booklet offers facts of other methods of realizing the overall in a number of contexts.

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Proof Let p be a given prime number. The theorem is obviously true for a = 1. Now let a be a given natural number and we suppose that the theorem is true for the number a. By Newton's binomial theorem, we have. + l^jap~l+ Q ap~2+ ... 2. A: and, which is well known, the numbers I p J are integers. We deduce that the number 1. 2 ... , k, (p\ must be divisible by p. , whence we deduce that the number ( p 1 must be divisible by p. Hence, because of (4), we deduce that the number (a+l)p—av— 1 is divisible by p.

Ftä-ÄXi) +an_l(x-x1). Hence as xk—x\ {χ-χ^χ^+χ^-2-^ ... for we easily get (iii) +x$-2x+xkrl) k = 2, 3 , . . ,an and xx)9 in which the n l coefficient of x ~ will be a0 and so a number not divisible by p. Because of the identity (iii) we get (iv) f(xl)—f(xi) But from p\f(xt) = (*/—*i)/i (**) for / = 2, 3 , . . , « + 1 . for i = 1 , 2 , . . /(*/)—/(*i) for / = 2, 3 , . . , « + 1 , whence because of (iv) for p\(x—x^fx(xt) / = 2, 3 , . . , « + 1 , and, as the numbers χ{—χΐ9 for ι = 2, 3 , . .

Thus there exist infinitely many prime numbers of the form 3/c+2. There are, however, some other arithmetic progressions of which it is quite easy to prove that they contain infinitely many prime numbers. )· 16. Some hypotheses about prime numbers Now let n be a given natural number > 1. We arrange the natural numbers 1, 2, 3 , . . e. , n2 The columns of this table form an arithmetic progression (with n terms). A. Schinzel advanced the conjecture that if k is a natural number < n not having any common factor > 1 with n, then the &th column of our table will contain at least one prime number.

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A Selection of Problems in the Theory of Numbers. Popular Lectures in Mathematics by Waclaw Sierpinski, I. N. Sneddon, M. Stark


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