By Wayles Browne, Theresa Alt
Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are 3 standardized types in keeping with very comparable linguistic fabric. for plenty of humans the time period "language" capacity standardized type of a language, and during this that means we will be able to communicate of a Bosnian language, a Croatian language, and a Serbian language. "Language" can be a process that allows verbal exchange, and during this that means we will think about all 3 to make up one language. Serbo-Croatian was once the normal time period. The non-native learner will often are looking to decide to be aware of Bosnian or Croatian or Serbian, yet studying any of those actively plus a few wisdom of the diversities will allow the learner to participate within the conversation method during the complete region. This description will use the time period BCS to indicate what the 3 criteria have in universal. the variations in grammar are usually not very quite a few and may be mentioned as we cross alongside. the variations in vocabulary are extra quite a few; a few could be mentioned within the vocabulary part.
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Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are 3 standardized varieties in response to very comparable linguistic fabric. for plenty of humans the time period "language" capability standardized type of a language, and during this that means we will converse of a Bosnian language, a Croatian language, and a Serbian language. "Language" is additionally a procedure that allows verbal exchange, and during this that means we will reflect on all 3 to make up one language.
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Extra resources for A Handbook of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian
3): ovaj grad je nov 'this city is new'. 5), including njegov 'his, its', njen and the Croatian preferred form njezin 'her', njihov 'their', have only short endings: Marijin grad 'Marija's city', njen grad 'her city', Ivanov grad 'Ivan's city'. The same is true for the demonstrative-interrogatives in -akav, suiting their meaning. 2). 5 Passive participles have short and long forms: pozvan, pozvani 'called; called upon'. The present adverb and the L-participle of verbs can be adjectivalized, and then they take long forms: idući 'coming, next', minuli 'bygone', pali 'fallen'.
These are mostly 1) one-syllable words containing a long vowel: gȗst 'thick', gušć-i ; skȗp 'expensive', skuplj-i ; 2) two-syllable words which lose the second syllable: širok 'wide', šir-i ; sladak 'sweet', slađ-i. Three adjectives have š comparatives: lak (Bosnian also lahak, stem lahk-) 'light, easy', lakši ; mek (Bosnian also mehak, stem mehk-) 'soft', mekši ; l(ij)ep 'beautiful', l(j)epši. Comparatives using different roots are dobar 'good', bolji ; loš or (Serbian) rđav or zao (stem zl-) 'bad', gori (or lošiji ) 'worse' ; velik 'large', veći ; mali or malen 'small', manji ; dug 'long', duži or dulji.
4). U- may represent the old prefix 'away', as ukloniti PF 'to eliminate', but usually means 'in', as ut(j)erati PF 'to drive in'. 5, and diminutives, for which the suffixes mostly involve k, c and r: gur-kati 'to push a little' from gurati 'to push', p(j)ev-uckati 'to hum' from p(j)evati 'to sing', šet-karati 'to stroll a little (somewhat pejorative)' from šetati. 7 Verb compounds are not numerous; one is kriv-o-tvor-iti 'to counterfeit' ⇠ kriv 'wrong', tvoriti 'to make, create'. 3. 1 Element order is determined largely by topic-comment structure.
A Handbook of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian by Wayles Browne, Theresa Alt